Topeng Cisalak

20-04-2011 Bogor Regencies 26183 viewed


Cisalak Mask is the name of a form of theater located in the Village People Cisalak, the village of Waterfall, District Cimanggis, Bogor regency. It lies on the border between the districts of Bogor (West Java) by Jakarta highway. Discuss that is used daily by people in general language support Betawi Malay dialect. The name "Mask" is taken from its original form is a form of theater that the players use the mask. Although at present the majority of players no longer use the mask, but the name of tradition that remains attached to the form of theater. Medium name "Cisalak" is taken from the name of the place the arts grow, bloom, and grow (from the original). Although in the past form of theater is not only in the village Cisalak, but also in some village or subdistrict in Bogor regency, but the Mask Cisalak most fans, the broadest frequency pementasannya, most continuous, and the most powerful in its management, become the main runway to survive. Hence the name Cisalak until now remains eternally be the name of the theater form. beside the name of the accompanying masks, theatrical forms were named "Mask Kinang". Kinang name was taken from a person who becomes cakal Cisalak Mask-going development of the original form into a form like that ditampakan today. 
Kinang is the name of a playwright as well as a mask of the famous dancer in the area of ​​Bogor, Bekasi, Jakarta, and surrounding areas at the beginning of XX abab. He was originally a playwright and dancer of the theater Ubrug. In 1914 Kinang married a fiddle player from the theater named Dji'un Ubrug. Both husband and wife were later founded the theater troupe that combines elements of a small mask, Ubrug, Banjet Falkirk, Lenong bekasi, Lontang Priangan, Gending China and Bali, to manifest a form of theater called "Mask or Mask Kinang Cisalak". With the aid-in-law of Mr. Dora (Dji'un father) who was a village chief in Cisalak, theater troupe made progress. 
On December 17, 1976, Enoch had Atmadibrata interview with Dali (child Dji'un + Kinang) who now leads the group Mask Cisalak. While Mrs. Kinang at that time already 82 years old, but she still can dance, play and berpantun well. In old age, he still continues to galvanize his students: a so belle Mask Rimah Cisalak at that time as well as mantunya (Dali's wife). Grandson of a third child named Kisam (handyman drums) also continues digemblengnya in Cisalak Mask dance. During her life Mrs. Kinang with her husband, devoting themselves totally to the art Cisalak Mask Theatre. From perjuangaanya develop Cisalak Mask, Mrs. Kinang ever get a gift from the Gouvernement for its success in market performance in 1920 in Batavia Gambi 
Mask Cisalak as recounted above, is a fusion of various elements of good art from West Java and outside West Java such as: Bali, Betawi, Cirebon, and Chinese. The elements of art are fused into a form of folk theater that total in the sense that various key elements of the kind type of art displayed in it. 
Effect of Balinese dance movement contained in the motion Cisalak Mask dance, dance Ronggeng appear on Mask. A dance pattern that was delivered by a female dancer and has become a tradition to appear in the third before the jokes and the story is "Ronggeng Mask". Although called Ronggeng Mask, but the dancers did not use the mask (mask). The word "Mask" for the perpetrators Ronggeng not show that he was masked, but that it is the dancer dancer Cisalak Mask. Who said "Ronggeng" for perpetrators of dance is taken from the name for the dancer on the arts "Ronggeng" in Priangan. 
Equality between dance movement Mask Cisalak with Balinese dance movement, is on a raised arm motion pattern (dikangkangkan) higher and farther from the body. Similarly, a stronger shoulder motion and the motion of the head neck. Lenggak lenggoknya body especially on the hips also have similarities. Mask dance hip motion in Cisalak appears to be more aggressive, but the expression and dynamics have almost the same color. 
Meanwhile, in gendingnya, in addition there is the usual color of Chinese gising be heard in the temple, there are also color gising Bali. Color similarity with Chinese music lies in the dominant voices: kromong (percussion), fiddle, and high-pitched kecrek and hot atmosphere, especially at gising tatalu. Trigon shape which is much smaller than the fiddle of Priangan, with wire of steel and his stomach made of coconut shell is very thin, reminiscent of the instrument-voiced Tehyan Tenge (little shrill). In addition, the style of beating between gising Mask Cisalak with Balipun there are parallels. Similarities ¬ technical elements of similarity in two styles, is caused by ethnic background history. 
As is known, the Sultan Agung of Mataram in 1628 and in 1629 invaded the stronghold of the Company in Batavia. Two times the attack on the stronghold of the Company have failed. In between there Mataram army troops stormed the Balinese who joined Batavia. Due to failures, many armies including Bali soldiers who did not return later settled in Cisalak. With its cultural background, the Balinese also adds to the performing arts of West Java, particularly Mask Cisalak. 
The second estimate, presented by I Gusti Gede Raka a dance expert and lecturer ASTI Denpasar (now STSI), in an interview with Enoch Atmadibrata on December 22, 1976, that in fact movements of Balinese dance karawitannya likewise, have the effect of West Java. The basis for that is that the oldest and largest Hindu kingdom in the archipelago located in West Java, namely Tarumanagara. The religious scholars of the kingdom that in order to spread the teachings of his religion, also brings with it kind of art. Similarly, Chinese influence Cisalak contained in the mask, attached to the historical and social background Cisalak region itself. 
According to some parents and community leaders Cisalak, supposedly on the Dutch colonial era, around settlements Cisalak, both paddies and the mainland, belonged to a king of Chinese soil. He was very fond of and even experts in the art area of ​​West Java, among other musicians. To date, close to Kampung Cisalak, there is a village called Kampung China. The past may village inhabited by ethnic Chinese who live alongside indigenous people and develop the arts together. 
Color Mask Small originating from Cirebon still visible in the second part before Ronggeng Mask appears. In section was presented dances that bring the two dancers. Both were wearing masks made of wood. One man wearing a mask dancer male red like Mask Mask of small Minakjingga Cirebon. One person more dancers wearing masks of white women such as Panji Mask is also derived from Small Mask Cirebon who became Mother of all forms Mask Theatre in West Java, Central Java even (Pigeaud, Javaansche Volks Vertoningen, 1938). In a patterned motions kendangpun still looking colors Small Mask Cirebon, in addition there is the development of motion distilir daily. 
Effect of Lontang (forms Longser) appear in the style lawakannya, not only from the motions of her caricature, but also a theme in these jokes. perjalinan likewise in between jokes with plays in the presentation of a story. In subsequent developments, a very strong influence on Priangan Ronggeng Cisalak Mask. But the effect was then fused in a whole and act as a ditampakan path in the famous play "Sarkawi" produced by the party leader M. Cisalak Mask Dali in 1976. 
Ronggeng dance movements have in common with dance movements Ronggeng Priangan. As an example: Kumpay dance movement, or Soloyong, plain and mincid mincid Adjrag (fast) on the Jajangkungan (dance movement by lifting the heel to coincide with the sound of gongs, the heel was dropped back to the ground. There are also similarities in movements such Wawayangan: Adeg -Adeg, galeong, gedig, which lacks long keupat Sulanjana a soft song. On motion male dancers who accompany the female dancers (Rongeng), there are also similarities such as the dance-dance: a kite, good, domino (which is the movement distilir daily), and Taian Cikeruhan-dance patterns and so forth. 
Mask used Waditra Cisalak still survive as dikreasikan Bang Dji'un and Mpok Kinang in 1919. Consists of: one large drum, two small drums (kulanter), one fiddle, two gongs, three kemong, and one unit kecrek. 
Among the players Cisalak Mask, a special dress, just Ronggeng mask and two masked dancers. Ronggeng overhead Mask "perched" a skull cap that is named "flower mask" or "darling". Mask flower is said, because the round shape, bloom to the top with sparkly decoration is almost like a flower growing relationship tengan roses. It said "unfortunately" because it resembles the love (house) sparrow or a chicken lay eggs. 
Two Dutch authors in 1920, namely Hardouin and Ritter reveals that in about the year, fireworks Mask or honey called "Cepio" which comes from the literal language of Portuguese Chepio headgear. While his clothes: the top piece skirt with short sleeves, closed starting from the neck to the abdomen, beneath berkain sdangkan to batik. The top of the clothes (skirt) is named Andong. On both shoulders diselempangkan cross into his chest, there are Toka-toka, made of silk with colors that stand out. Hardouin says "probably comes from the Portuguese that is Tocca which means turban and belt." In these clothes have a piece of cloth of gold-colored cotton or silk, closing the chest, called Pandepun. While strapped to a belt made of metal, called Pending. From the navel downwards to the extent of the knee, fringed Ampreng, is a piece of cloth embroidered with gold. On either side of the waist is also fringed silk scarf that is named that way Kewer wear it tucked in pending. A fan made of paper are also used as handprof, held by his right hand and opened manakal he sings to her mouth. 
Red masked dancers (male) in its last, as shown by the group led by M. Dali, use salontreng (pajamas big) black watna, and pants are also black. A diselendangka in shoulder holster. Apparel is the typical clothing of farmers (kala primp) in West Java tempo first. 
White masked dancers (women) with dirumbaikan hair to her shoulders, wearing a carriage (skirt from the neck to the abdomen) with long sleeves. From the elbow limit tufted white skirt. Pending a circle around his waist, while ampreng tufted from the navel to the knee limit. The bottom wearing a long skirt or a cloth wrapped around. Comedian, everyday clothes, just in his head kopiyah wear skullcaps, which is a typical form of kopiyah comedian, both on Mask Cisalak, Banjet, longser, also Ubrug. While other players are adjusted to the role of the holding. The nayaga wearing a uniform (the same shirt) and black kopiyah in his head. 
Performing original mask Cisalak above a circular arena. Around the arena the audience the front squat, while the back feet. A quarter of a circle and its arena filled by nayaga waditranya, also at the same place of the players including the dancers assembled and decorated. Illumination emitted from a Oncor, and under these Oncor 
placed a container of tin or some kind of hat a place to store money "pangalungan" (giving the audience) or a cash honorarium of which have urination. In further developments, as well as other people's theater in West Java, always adjust to technological progress. Likewise illumination that initially only using Oncor, then using pumped, even it is possible to use both electric power taken from home or from a generator. In addition, the Mask Cisalak also been frequently performed on stage, even in the theater. 
The order of performances, beginning with the reading of incantations for the safety and smoothness, followed by gising tatalu. Gendingnya sequence, first-arangan Charcoal, Sulanjana, then Geyot. This section is part of the opening that serves to collect the audience with music tugs a dynamic and stimulating and uplifting. 
After tatalu, then exit two masked dancers (red and white) accompanied by the song: Glenderan, sexual intercourse, and Fussy. The next section is the third part, munculah Ronggeng Mask with his trademark clothes, her movements are lively, dynamic and expressive. The most notable movement is that erotic hips. The song is Lipet Gandes retinue, Geyot and so forth. While dancing, Ronggeng Mask which was hummed poem sung in rhythm. Among pantunnya that smell is romantic and humorous: 
Duri bright red bang 
Cute people once viewed 
People flunky much affection 
Pegih kemanah not that forbid 
Ilang there crock jug 
Place the lady washing the feet 
Ilang was now no 
Place entertain the heart ati 
At seven o'clock eight 
At nine o'clock the ship runs 
I wait until when 
Aer eyes fell on the body 
The fourth section, is the emergence of a comedian, came Ronggeng Mask. In addition to the buffoon he also berpantun follow Ronggeng Mask of them: 
Fish betok do not roasted 
If baked a lot of oil 
People should not be viewed plump 
If seen a lot of acting 
Then disahut Ronggeng Mask with rhyme: 
Mat past sprout 
Now mat bengkuang 
Past persuasion 
 Already now wasted 
After dancing and full of antics berpantun together and romantic, followed in section five, which is part of the principal. In this section presented one or two plays, depending on the time available and the request that have urination. In staging the night, Mask Cisalak usually presents several plays that were held in a sequence starting at 20:00 until 04:30. In a story featuring a character improvisatoris, also accompanied with dance jokes and singing. Jokes are very dominant in the entire story line. Sometimes when pelawaknya penontonya groove, the portion can joke for hours after, but still does not cut off the storyline. That privilege Mask Cisalak. 
Towards the end of the show between the hours of 03:00 until 04:30 hours, typically presented the play "The Jantuk". The play was presented in the form of a dialogue between the players shouted berpantun. Celtic have been patterned as a result of anonymous oral literature. Another specialty of this scene is that the actor ngajantuk Si Jantuk mempergunakanTopeng made of wood. Semar is shaped face mask, no chin, and said appended Mask in Mask Cisalak, according to experts drawn from the mask Jantuk as one of the Cirebon mask effect. The meaning and story themes Si Jantuk, almost the same as other people's theaters in West Java, which is about advice-advice in living life to settle down. 
In addition to the story The Jantuk and Sarkawi, famous among the audience Mask Cisalak, namely the play "The foreman China" or "Mr. Big". The play is a spontaneous outburst of West Java people's hearts in the face caused the rulers of the colonizers (The Netherlands) tempo first. The satirical plays are sometimes sarcasm. 
Life Mask Theatre Cisalak now, like most theater theater ¬ other people in West Java, unable to compete with species that grow ¬ variety of acts which tend to be the next instant. 
TITLE                                    : Masks Cisalak 
Headline                              : Preparation performances Cisalak Mask 
DESCRIPTION                   : The Mask Nayaga Cisalak Tatalu to beat gising 
                                                spectators gather 
Description by                    : Yuli Sunarya 
Photographer                     : Enoch Atmadibrata. 
Source image                    : Photos, 1976 
Location of image             : KMP. Cisalak, Kec. Cimanggis, Kab. Bogor, West Java 
Copyright                             : Foundation of Culture Jayaloka 
TITLE                                    : Masks Cisalak 
Headline                              : Mask performance Cisalak 
DESCRIPTION                   : Ronggeng Mask is showing his ability to dance 
Description by                    : Yuli Sunarya 
Photographer                     : Enoch Atmadibrata. Source image: Image, 1976 
Location of image             : KMP. Cisalak, Kec. Cimanggis, Kab.Bogor, West Java. 
Copyright                            : Foundation of Culture Jayaloka 
TITLE                                   : Masks Cisalak 
Headline                             : Mask performance Cisalak 
DESCRIPTION                  : Ronggeng Mask dancing with male dancers 
Description by                   : Yuli Sunarya 
Photographer                    : Enoch Atmadibrata. 
Source image                   : Image, 1976 
Location of image          : KMP. Cisalak, Kec. Cimanggis, Bogor regency, West Java 
Copyright                            : Foundation of Culture Jayaloka 
TITLE                                   : Masks Cisalak 
Headline                             : Mask performance Cisalak 
DESCRIPTION              : Appearances ngajantuk which is one of the performances Mask 
Description by                    : Yuli Sunarya 
Photographer                     : Enoch Atmadibrata. 
Source image                     : Image, 1978 
Location of image               : Noon Rumentang Building, Bandung, West Java 
Copyright                              : Foundation of Culture Jayaloka 
TITLE                                     : Masks Cisalak 
Headline                               : Mask performance Cisalak 
DESCRIPTION                    : One of the players Cisalak Mask wearing a red mask 
Description by                     : Yuli Sunarya 
Photographer                      : Enoch Atmadibrata. 
Source image                     : Photos, 1978 
Location of image              : Noon Rumentang Building, Bandung, West Java
Copyright                             : Foundation of Culture Jayaloka  

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